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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 141-147

Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in complex coronary artery disease: Long-term clinical outcomes from a high-volume center

Department of Cardiothoracic, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed Farag
Department of Cardiothoracic, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE7 7DN
Mohammad Alkhalil
Department of Cardiothoracic, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE7 7DN
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/heartviews.heartviews_116_22

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Background: Clinical equipoise between a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in the treatment of complex coronary artery disease (CAD), including unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) and/or three-vessel disease (3VD), remains debatable. Methods: A retrospective analysis of an unselected cohort undergoing contemporary PCI versus CABG at a large center in 2015. Patients who received nonemergent treatment of unprotected LMCA and/or 3VD were included. The primary study endpoint was all-cause mortality at 5 years. Secondary endpoints included a composite of all-cause mortality, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemia-driven repeat revascularization at 30 days and 1 year. Results: Four hundred and thirty patients met the inclusion criteria, 225 had PCI, and 205 had CABG. PCI patients were older with frequent LMCA involvement and higher EuroSCORE yet they had a fourfold shorter in-hospital stay compared to CABG patients. At 5 years, there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between CABG and PCI (adjusted Hazard ratios 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.22, P = 0.19). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the secondary composite endpoint or its components at 30 days or 1 year. A propensity score-matched analysis in 220 patients revealed similar outcomes. Conclusions: In real-world long-term contemporary data, survival after PCI was comparable to CABG at 5 years in patients with unprotected LMCA and/or 3VD. At 1 year, the incidence of spontaneous MI and ischemia-driven repeat revascularization did not differ between the two cohorts. The mode of revascularization in these complex patients should be guided by the heart team.

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