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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2023
Volume 24 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 125-169

Online since Wednesday, July 5, 2023

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Predictors of 30-day re-admission in cardiac patients at heart hospital, Qatar p. 125
Hajar A Hajar Albinali, Rajvir Singh, Abdul Rahman Al Arabi, Awad Al Qahtani, Nidal Asaad, Jassim Al Suwaidi
Background: Cardiovascular disease patients are more likely to be readmitted within 30 days of being discharged alive. This causes an enormous burden on health-care systems in terms of poor care of patients and misutilization of resources. Aims and Objective: This study aims to find out the risk factors associated with 30-day readmission in cardiac patients at Heart Hospital, Qatar. Methods: A total of 10,550 cardiac patients who were discharged alive within 30 days at the heart hospital in Doha, Qatar, from January 2015 and December 2019 were analyzed. The bootstrap method, an internal validation statistical technique, was applied to present representative estimates for the population. Results: Out of the 10,550 cardiac patients, there were 8418 (79.8%) index admissions and 2132 (20.2%) re-admitted at least once within 30 days after the index admission. The re-admissions group was older than the index admission group (65.6 ± 13.2 vs. 56.0 ± 13.5, P = 0.001). Multinomial regression analysis showed that females were 30% more likely to be re-admitted than males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.50, P = 0.001). Diabetes (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.20–1.53, P = 0.001), chronic renal failure (aOR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.66–2.24, P = 0.001), previous MI (aOR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.85–3.64, P = 0.001), atrial fibrillation (aOR 2.17, 95% C.I. : 1.10-2.67, P = 0.01), cardiomyopathy (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47–2.02, P = 0.001), and chronic heart failure (aOR 1.56, 95% C.I.: 1.33-1.82, P = 0.001) were also independent predictors for re-admission in the regression model. C-statistics showed these variables could predict 82% accurately hospital readmissions within 30 days after being discharged alive. Conclusion: The model was more than 80% accurate in predicting 30-day readmission after being discharged alive. The presence of five or more risk factors was found to be crucial for readmissions within 30 days. The study may help design interventions that may result in better outcomes with fewer resources in the population.
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Real-world experience in managing atrial fibrillation in patients with renal impairment; Rivaroxaban versus warfarin p. 136
Monirah Abdulrahman Albabtain, Zaid Dakheel Alanazi, Nawaf Hamoud Al-Mutairi, Ola Alyafi, Raneem Albanyan, Amr A Arafat
Background: The use of rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses the risk of over- or underdosing. We aimed to compare rivaroxaban and warfarin in AF patients with moderate and severe renal impairment. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between 2015 and 2016 to compare the use of warfarin (n = 164) and rivaroxaban (n = 149) in patients with AF and moderate or severe CKD. The study outcomes were survival, stroke, and major bleeding events. The median follow-up was 50 months (interquartile range: 23–60). Results: Thirty-six patients had major bleeding: 24 with rivaroxaban and 12 with warfarin (P = 0.01). The rivaroxaban group had major bleeding in 3 patients with moderate CKD, 4 with severe CKD, and 17 on dialysis. Multivariable analysis of factors affecting major bleeding revealed that warfarin use lowered the risk of bleeding (hazard ratio: 0.34; P = 0.004). Stroke occurred in 14 patients: 6 in the rivaroxaban group and 8 in the warfarin group (P = 0.44). Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 89%, 77%, and 71% with warfarin and 99%, 94%, and 88% with rivaroxaban, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed higher mortality in patients with lower creatinine clearance and those on warfarin. Conclusions: The safety of warfarin could be better than rivaroxaban in patients with CKD with fewer bleeding complications but similar stroke rates. Further studies on rivaroxaban dosing in patients on dialysis are required.
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Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in complex coronary artery disease: Long-term clinical outcomes from a high-volume center p. 141
Kerrick Hesse, Mohaned Egred, Azfar Zaman, Mohammad Alkhalil, Mohamed Farag
Background: Clinical equipoise between a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in the treatment of complex coronary artery disease (CAD), including unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) and/or three-vessel disease (3VD), remains debatable. Methods: A retrospective analysis of an unselected cohort undergoing contemporary PCI versus CABG at a large center in 2015. Patients who received nonemergent treatment of unprotected LMCA and/or 3VD were included. The primary study endpoint was all-cause mortality at 5 years. Secondary endpoints included a composite of all-cause mortality, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemia-driven repeat revascularization at 30 days and 1 year. Results: Four hundred and thirty patients met the inclusion criteria, 225 had PCI, and 205 had CABG. PCI patients were older with frequent LMCA involvement and higher EuroSCORE yet they had a fourfold shorter in-hospital stay compared to CABG patients. At 5 years, there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between CABG and PCI (adjusted Hazard ratios 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.22, P = 0.19). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the secondary composite endpoint or its components at 30 days or 1 year. A propensity score-matched analysis in 220 patients revealed similar outcomes. Conclusions: In real-world long-term contemporary data, survival after PCI was comparable to CABG at 5 years in patients with unprotected LMCA and/or 3VD. At 1 year, the incidence of spontaneous MI and ischemia-driven repeat revascularization did not differ between the two cohorts. The mode of revascularization in these complex patients should be guided by the heart team.
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Surgical or percutaneous repair of sinus of valsalva rupture: Case series and literature review p. 148
Mohammad Paymard, Mark Daniel Higgins, Ajay Sinhal, Muntaser D Musameh
The rupture of the sinus of the Valsalva aneurysm is a rare but very serious condition. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical for these cases. We present two cases of sinus of Valsalva ruptures. One case was managed with open surgical repair and the second case was treated percutaneously. We have discussed these two therapeutic approaches available to treat sinus of Valsalva rupture.
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Dilated cardiomyopathy in hyperthyroidism can be reversed with treatment p. 153
Lama Alasmari, Osama Khairoalsindi, Abdulaziz Algethami, Ahmed Jizeeri
The authors present a case of a 54-year-old male patient with a history of shortness of breath and orthopnea. The echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction (EF) of 35%–40%. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was missed initially although the patient had bilateral exophthalmos and thyroid function tests suggesting it. Medical treatment of the hyperthyroid state reversed the cardiomyopathy within 6 months of treatment. Repeated echocardiograms after hyperthyroidism treatment showed a normalized EF.
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Slippage of an undeployed stent in the left main artery: A case report study p. 157
Abdelaziz Ahmed Abdelaziz, Ahmed Maher Abo Taleb
Advances in stent design and technology have made stent loss during percutaneous coronary interventions rare. When an undeployed stent dislodges in the left main (LM) artery during percutaneous coronary angioplasty, the risk of life-threatening procedural complications is high. We report a 50-year-old male patient, a smoker, with a history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension with typical chest pain on minimal exertion. Electrocardiogram and echo revealed ischemic changes and regional wall motion abnormality. Culotte technique was used. A new 3 mm × 48 mm stent was inserted in the LM-left circumflex (LM-LCX) followed by stenting of the LM-left anterior descending (LM-LAD) ostia with a 3.5 mm × 18 mm stent. The two balloons were rewired and kissed. Stent slippage and dislodging in the LM artery can be corrected using the culotte technique to crush the undeployed stent behind the LM-LCX and LM-LAD stents.
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Acute mitral regurgitation with unilateral left-sided pulmonary edema: A complication of stemi treated successfully with a mitraclip procedure p. 160
Ibrar Anjum, Umer Zia, Sheraz Anjum, Shalin Patel
A 67-year-old man with inferior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent Impella-assisted percutaneous coronary intervention complicated by unilateral left-sided pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock due to severe mitral valve regurgitation. Surgery was deferred due to hemodynamic instability and a high risk of mortality, so he underwent a MitraClip procedure. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction that leads to the development of pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, and death. After the procedure, the patient significantly reduces MR with a resolution of pulmonary edema. Acute MR can rarely present as a unilateral left-sided pulmonary edema delaying diagnosis and treatment. Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair can be a safe alternative for patients who are at high risk for surgery.
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An unusual complication of infective endocarditis treated by percutaneous intervention p. 163
Galal Abushahba, Lana Robinson, Paul Keelan, Niamh F Murphy, Venu Reddy Bijjam
Mycotic pseudoaneurysms (PA) are an infrequent complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, due to advanced imaging modality and early therapy, this complication has been seen less frequently in the past few years. The reported incidence is 5%–15% of the patients, with the most common site being intracranial vessels (up to 65%), followed by abdominal and then peripheral vessels. We describe a young patient with a bicuspid aortic valve complicated by IE, who developed a giant mycotic PA. This was treated with a cover stent of the aneurysmal segment, which was complicated by distal stent migration and eventually managed with bypass surgery.
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Dual circumflex coronary arteries with direct origin of accessory circumflex from the left aortic sinus p. 166
Arun Sharma, Harsimran Bhatia, Manphool Singhal
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Metaphors, Similes, and Medicine p. 168
Rachel Hajar
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