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   2016| January-March  | Volume 17 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 18, 2016

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B-type natriuretic peptide as an index of symptoms and severity of chronic rheumatic mitral regurgitation
Eman M Abdel Fattah, Hany Younan Azer Girgis, Khaled El Khashab, Zeinab A Ashour, Ghada M Ezzat
January-March 2016, 17(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182648  PMID:27293523
Background: The most common causes of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) in developing countries are rheumatic heart disease. The plasma level of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is known to increase with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Aim of the Work: To study BNP level as an index of symptoms and severity of chronic rheumatic MR. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty patients with rheumatic MR and LV ejection fractions (EFs) of >55% underwent assessment of symptoms, transthoracic echocardiography, and measurement of BNP. Results: The level of BNP rose with increasing left atrium (LA) dimensions and volumes, LV dimensions and volumes, echocardiographic parameters of MR severity (width of the vena contracta, regurgitation jet area, effective regurgitation orifice area, and regurgitant volume), and E waves. Results: BNP was significantly higher in patients with severe MR compared with moderate and mild MR (P < 0.001), and using cutoff point of 61 pg/mL mm had 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity for predicting patients with severe MR (0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9–1). BNP was significantly higher in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA III) compared with NYHA II, I and asymptomatic patients (P < 0.001) and using cutoff point of 53 pg/mL had 97% sensitivity and 87% specificity for predicting symptomatic patients with symptomatic MR (0.81, 95% CI 0.70–0.92). Conclusions: BNP level increase with increasing severity of rheumatic MR and are higher in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients, even in the presence of normal EF%.
  5,705 101 2
A constellation of cardiac anomalies: Beyond shone's complex
Neeraj K Ganju, Arvind Kandoria, Suresh Thakur, Sunite A Ganju
January-March 2016, 17(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182643  PMID:27293526
Shone's anomaly is a very rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by four serial obstructive lesions of the left side of the heart (i) Supravalvular mitral membrane (ii) parachute mitral valve (iii) muscular or membranous subaortic stenosis and (iv) coarctation of aorta. We report a unique presentation of Shone's complex in a 14-year-old adolescent male. In addition to the four characteristic lesions the patient had bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of sinus of valsalva, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, persistent left superior vena cava opening into coronary sinus and severe pulmonary artery hypertension. This case report highlights the importance of a strong clinical suspicion of the coexistence of multiple congenital cardiac anomalies in Shone's complex and the significance of a careful comprehensive echocardiography.
  5,032 183 6
Intoxicants in society
Rachel Hajar
January-March 2016, 17(1):42-48
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182651  PMID:27293532
  4,768 111 -
Holt-Oram syndrome associated with aortic atresia: A rare association
Sunil B Rodagi, Snehal S Surana, Vijaykumar R Potdar, Sharanbasav S Kirdi
January-March 2016, 17(1):27-29
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182644  PMID:27293527
Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that causes abnormalities of the upper limbs and heart. It is seen in 1:1, 00, 000 live births. It is linked to a single-gene TBX5 “protein-producing” mutation with gene map locus 12q24. Most commonly it is characterized by the cardiac septation defects and pre-axial radial ray abnormalities. We are reporting a case of HOS with aortic atresia which is a rare association.
  4,649 91 1
Correlation between diastolic dysfunction and coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomography angiography
Abdelrahman Jamiel, Amjad M Ahmed, Iyad Farah, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
January-March 2016, 17(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182649  PMID:27293524
Aims: We investigated the relationship between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and measures of left ventricular diastolic function (DD). Methods: We included 429 consecutive patients (39% women; mean age 49 ± 12 years) without known CAD, who underwent CCTA and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) within 1-month. Evaluation of CCTA was per vessel, and per segment basis for intraluminal diameter stenosis. We also used the 16-segment model to determine overall coronary plaque burden with segment involvement score (SIS). DD on TTE was assessed using mitral inflow E wave-to-A wave ratio (EAR) and tissue Doppler early mitral annual tissue velocity axial excursion. Results: A total of 293 (68.4%) patients had DD, 15.4% had more than stage 2 DD. The presence of DD was associated with increasing CACS (P < 0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant correlation between EAR and CCS (r = −0.147, P = 0.004) and SIS (r = 0.536, P < 0.001). The prevalence of more than stage 2 DD was associated with higher prevalence of obstructive CAD (26.2% vs. 11.7%, P < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, the independent predictors of more than stage 1 DD are the age (P < 0.001), and diabetes (P = 0.010), while the CACS and SIS were not independently associated with DD. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that CACS, as well as CAD by CCTA, are not independently associated with measures of DD on echocardiography.
  3,795 183 10
A case of isolated right ventricle noncompaction with ST-Elevation chest leads
Sourabh Aggarwal, Jagadeesh Kalavakunta, Vishal Gupta
January-March 2016, 17(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182645  PMID:27293528
Non-compaction of ventricular myocardium (NCVM) is a rare genetic disorder caused by intrauterine arrest of endomyocardial development. Left ventricle is the usual site of NCVM with very rare reports of isolated right ventricular non-compaction (IRVNC). We describe a case of asymptomatic IRVNC with unique EKG changes.
  3,553 104 7
Sporadic multicentric right atrial and right ventricular myxoma presenting as acute pulmonary thromboembolism
Satyajit Singh, Mahendra Prasad Tripathy, Bipin Bihari Mohanty, Sutapa Biswas
January-March 2016, 17(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182642  PMID:27293525
Multicentric cardiac myxoma is a rare syndrome; usually it is familial. We report a rare case of sporadic right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) myxoma in a 26-year-old female presenting to our hospital for the evaluation of sudden onset of dyspnea and left precordial pain attributed to the embolization of degenerating tumor fragments to the pulmonary artery (PA). The exact incidence of sporadic multicentric RA and RV myxoma presenting as acute pulmonary embolism is unknown as multicentric RA and RV myxoma are very rare. Myxomas presenting as pulmonary embolism is <10%. Majority of cardiac myxomas present as exertional dyspnea, chest pain, positional syncope, fever, weight loss and other constitutional symptoms. Any young patient presenting with acute onset dyspnea with multiple cardiac masses may have tumor embolization to the PA diagnosis with transthoracic echocardiography and high-resolution computed tomography of thorax, fast-tracks patient transfer for urgent cardiac surgery to prevent further embolization.
  3,394 126 8
Acute myocardial infarction following right coronary artery dissection due to blunt trauma
Ronnie N Mubang, WT Hillman Terzian, James Cipolla, Scott Keeney, John J Lukaszczyk, Stanislaw P Stawicki
January-March 2016, 17(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182646  PMID:27293529
Despite the frequent occurrence of blunt chest trauma, associated cardiac injuries are relatively rare. The most common presentation of blunt cardiac injury is benign arrhythmia (e.g., sinus tachycardia), followed in decreasing frequency by increasingly severe arrhythmias and finally physically evident injuries to the heart muscle, the conducting system, cardiac valves, and/or coronary vessels. Here we present an unusual case of a patient who sustained a right coronary artery dissection and associated acute myocardial infarction following a motor vehicle crash.
  3,387 83 4
Diastolic abnormalities detected by velocity vector imaging in the presence of coronary ischemia: A pilot stress echocardiographic study
Brian Edward Miller, Angel Lopez-Candales
January-March 2016, 17(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182647  PMID:27293522
Background: The ischemic cascade has long been known to begin with diastolic dysfunction before detectable systolic abnormalities. The advent of speckle-tracking imaging and velocity vector imaging (VVI) has provided accurate and reproducible interpretation of systolic abnormalities in numerous disease processes; however, this imaging tool has been only recently been proposed for detecting diastolic abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed pre and poststress echocardiography images of ten patients using VVI. We calculated normalized strain time (NST) as the duration strain was at least 90% of the measured peak and subtracted pre and poststress NST to calculate prolongation of NST as a sign of diastolic dysfunction. These intervals were measured from left ventricular longitudinal cine images obtained from two and 4-chamber in five patients not only with a positive stress echocardiographic response but also anatomy confirmed by coronary angiography. They were then compared to five patients without coronary artery disease (CAD). Results: Differences in pre and poststress NST measured in the apical 4-chamber view were greater in CAD patients than without (40 ± 16 vs. 12 ± 19; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Significant diastolic abnormalities were detected using a semi-automated VVI analysis in the poststress recovery period. A prospective study is now required in a larger number of patients to correlate the development of diastolic strain abnormalities with extent and location of CAD.
  3,304 123 2
Cor triatriatum with partial atrioventricular septal defect
Jivtesh S Pahwa, Milind Phadke, Rushikesh Patil, Charan Lanjewar, Prafulla Kerkar
January-March 2016, 17(1):39-39
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182641  PMID:27293530
  2,723 101 -
Monet and cataracts
Rachel Hajar
January-March 2016, 17(1):40-41
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.182650  PMID:27293531
  2,603 69 -